2. Symptoms of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) on cassava. An infected plant showing severe stunting and distortion of leaves (A) compared to a healthy plant (B). Leaves of CMD-affected plants produce misshapen and twisted leaflets with mosaic and mottling symptoms (C and D).
What are the symptoms of cassava disease?
Symptoms of the disease include irregular light-green, yellow, or white patches on leaves and leaf deformation, which reduce photosynthesis and stunt plant growth. Effects on yield vary from no reduction to total crop loss depending on the cassava cultivar and environmental conditions.
What are the symptoms of African cassava mosaic virus?
These symptoms include chlorotic mosaic of the leaves, leaf distortion, and stunted growth. Leaf stalks have a characteristic S-shape. Infection can be overcome by the plant especially when a rapid onset of symptoms occurs. A slow onset of disease development usually correlates with death of the plant.
What causes cassava mosaic disease?
One of the most important diseases of cassava is cassava mosaic disease (CMD), which is transmitted primarily by the vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) (Chant 1958). CMD is the most important threat to cassava production in Zambia. The disease is prevalent in most cassava fields (Chikoti et al.
What are the symptoms of mosaic virus?
Mosaic symptoms are variable but commonly include irregular leaf mottling (light and dark green or yellow patches or streaks). Leaves are commonly stunted, curled, or puckered; veins may be lighter than normal or banded with dark green or yellow.
What does mosaic virus do?
Tobacco mosaic virus causes a mottled browning of tobacco leaves, and accordingly is of major economic importance. It also infects other crops, most notably tomatoes. The virus is spread mechanically from infected plants to scratched or damaged leaves of normal plants.
How do you control cassava disease?
It can be controlled by using varieties with good tolerance, soaking stakes in hot water before planting, sterilizing tools with disinfectant, and intercropping to reduce plant-to-plant dissemination. Viral diseases are usually transmitted through infected planting material.
Which disease is caused for mosaic disease?
This disease is caused by a complex consisting of the monopartite begomovirus Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV, family: Geminiviridae) and a small satellite DNA beta component. BYVMV can systemically infect bhendi upon agroinoculation but produces only mild leaf curling in this host.
What causes African cassava mosaic virus?
The main disease affecting the crop is African cassava mosaic disease (ACMD) which is caused by any of the African cassava mosaic geminiviruses (ACMVs) that are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tubaci (Gennadius).
Why do cassava leaves turn yellow?
Water: A common cause of yellow yucca leaves is too much water. If you water the plant regularly or plant it in soil that doesn’t drain freely, the roots begin to rot. For best results, plant yuccas in sandy soil and don’t use organic mulch.
Is Cassava mosaic virus A DNA virus?
The full-length sequences of 109 components (68 DNA-A and 41 DNA-B) were determined, representing isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus, as well as a novel begomovirus species for which the name East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus is proposed.
How do you get rid of tobacco mosaic virus?
- Purchase virus-free plants.
- Remove all weeds since these may harbor TMV.
- Remove all crop debris from benches and the greenhouse structure.
- Set aside plants with the above symptoms and obtain a diagnosis.
- Discard infected plants.
- Disinfest tools by placing them in disinfectant for at least 10 min.
What are the pest of cassava?
The common leaf and stem pests of cassava are cassava mealybug, cassava green mite, var- iegated grasshopper, and whiteflies.
How do you test for mosaic virus?
The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) ImmunoStrip® is used to detect the presence of TMV in many different crops including vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals. ImmunoStrips® are the perfect screening tool for use in the field, greenhouse, and the lab. The TMV ImmunoStrip® cross-reacts with many other Tobamoviruses.
Is mosaic virus harmful to humans?
“These viruses are specific to plants and do not harm humans. The presence of mosaic won’t cause fruits to rot prematurely but severely distorted fruit will have a different texture, so use your own judgement.”
What plants can mosaic virus infect?
Mosaic viruses affect a wide range of edible crops – alfalfa, apples, beans, celery, corn, cucumbers, figs, peppers, spinach, tobacco and tomatoes are some of the more common ones. They can also infect ornamental plants like abultilon, delphinium, gladiola, marigold, petunia and one of the most notable, roses.